step 1. About income tax literary works, come across Groeneveld, Tuma, and you can Hannan (1980), Alm and you can Whittington (1999, 1997, and 1995), Whittington and Alm (1997), Sjoquist and Walker (1995), Gelardi (1996). Regarding passions literary works, come across Moffitt (1998) getting a thorough questionnaire.
dos. An increasing literature finds one taxes is actually coordinated for the timing away from events as well as birth (Dickert-Conlin and you may Chandra 1999), wedding (Alm and you may Whittington 1997; Gelardi 1996), money growth bottom line (Burman and you can Randolph 1994), and you may charity benefits (Randolph 1995).
cuatro. There are just one.5 billion widowers, with 275,000 involving the period of 55 and you may 64 (Lugaila 1998). Original data towards the a sample of males are extremely loud provided this type of short take to items.
5. Almost every other literatures target this performance concept, but the ple, there was an implicit subsidy to own delaying bottom line from investment development in the way of deferred income tax, resulting in people in order to sidestep more productive opportunities and you can leading to efficiency loss (look for Auerbach 1992, eg). The story is analogous for wedding decisions.
eight. The fresh Personal Safeguards Management calculates somebody’s PIA in line with the man or woman’s mediocre money during the Social Security safeguarded employment.
8. For these produced prior to 1940, the latest NRA for widow(er) benefits are ages 65. Having after delivery cohorts, the newest NRA was slowly ascending in order to age 67.
9. Officially, out-of a social beskrivning Cover angle, a good widow achieves years sixty “the original minute” during the day prior to her 60th birthday.
10. You to definitely significant implication for the law would be the fact an effective widow you can expect to remarry any time in advance of ages sixty, legally divorce or separation during the ages 59 years and you will 364 days, and you may ree individual) on her behalf 60th birthday in place of losing qualification getting widow professionals. We really do not feel the compatible analysis to adopt this type away from behavior.
several. However, it is not probably the 2 men might have identical PIA s, however, we might anticipate the initial and you will 2nd future husband from comparable socioeconomic backgrounds for example enjoys about equivalent money and you may PIA s. An average PIA of men retiring from inside the 1998 involved $1,000 ( U.S. Societal Security Administration 1999).
thirteen. Which assumes a monthly interest rate out of 0.25 percent. Into a yearly foundation, this is exactly near the step three % real rate out-of go back that the Social Coverage Faith Finance are projected to earn (Board of Trustees 1999). Within analogy, i imagine a beneficial widow gets a fixed buck matter having good specified age days. Actually, Public Security advantages and you may PIA s is actually modified to own rising cost of living more day. In today’s value calculations, we utilize the repaired money amounts due to the fact i fool around with a bona fide interest on the discounting.
fourteen. For people created once 1928, 40 “quarters” off work in Societal Cover secure work are very important having totally covered status. For those created inside the otherwise in advance of 1928, how many necessary house was quicker. Come across U.S. Social Safeguards Government (1999) for much more information.
15. Which statutes also welcome a little beneficiary class, disabled widow(er) s and you will disabled surviving divorced spouses, old 50 otherwise old, so you’re able to remarry without death of professionals.
17. I draw research out-of Personal Protection info extracted into the July off 1998 and you can prohibit women who was in fact completely covered in their own personal best. This is basically the reason for our very own assertion that these feminine remarried before age sixty. That is, once they had remarried once many years 60, we expect that they is getting widow pros in place of partner professionals as the widow professionals were high. Regardless if companion advantages was in fact relatively large, we assume that they might have reported widow experts at age 60 so you’re able to 62 (ages whenever partner gurus can’t be said).
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